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Martian atmosphere as observed by VIRTIS-M on Rosetta spacecraft

Angioletta Coradini 1 Davide Grassi 1 Fabrizio Capaccioni 1 Gianrico Filacchione 1 Federico Tosi 1 Eleonora Ammannito 1 Maria Cristina de Sanctis 1 Vittorio Formisano 1 Paulina Wolkenberg 1 Giovanna Rinaldi 1 Gabriele Arnold 2 Maria Antonella Barucci 3, 4, 5, 6 Giancarlo Bellucci 1 Johann Benkhoff 7 Jean-Pierre Bibring 8 A. Blanco 9 Dominique Bockelée-Morvan 3, 4, 5, 6 Maria Teresa Capria 1 Robert Carlson 10 U. Carsenty 2 Priscilla Cerroni 1 Luigi Colangeli 11 Michel Combes 3, 4, 5, 6 M. Combi 12 Jacques Crovisier 3, 4, 5, 6 Pierre Drossart 3, 4, 5, 6 Thérèse Encrenaz 3, 4, 5, 6 Stéphane Erard 3, 4, 5, 6 C. Federico 13 Uwe Fink 14 Sergio Fonti 9 W. Ip 15 Patrick G. J. Irwin 16 Ralf Jaumann 2 Ekkehard Kuehrt 2 Yves Langevin 8 G. Magni 1 Thomas B. Mccord 17 Vito Mennella 11 Stefano Mottola 2 Gerhard Neukum 2 Vincenzo Orofino 9 Pasquale Palumbo 18 Giuseppe Piccioni 1 Heike Rauer 2 Bernard Schmitt 19 Didier Tiphene 3, 4, 5, 6 Frederic W. Taylor 16 Gian Paolo Tozzi 20 
Abstract : The Rosetta spacecraft accomplished a flyby of Mars on its way to 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 25 February 2007. In this paper we describe the measurements obtained by the M channel of the Visual and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS-M) and the first scientific results derived from their analysis. The broad spectral coverage of the VIRTIS-M in the IR permitted the study of various phenomena occurring in the Martian atmosphere; observations were further exploited to achieve accurate absolute radiometric calibration. Nighttime data from the VIRTIS-M constrain the air temperature profile in the lower atmosphere (5-30 km), using variations in CO2 opacity at 4.3 mum. A comparison of this data with the global circulation model (GCM) by Forget et al. (1999) shows a trend of slightly higher air temperature in the VIRTIS-M retrievals; this is accompanied by the presence of moderate decreases (˜5 K) in large sections of the equatorial region. This is potentially related to the occurrence of water ice clouds. Daytime data from the VIRTIS-M reveal CO2 non-local thermodynamic equilibrium emission in the high atmosphere. A mapping of emission intensity confirms its strict dependence on solar zenith angle. Additionally, devoted limb observations allowed the retrieval of vertical emission intensity profiles, indicating a peak around 105 km in southern tropical regions. Ozone content can be effectively monitored by the emission of O2 (a1Deltag) at 1.27 mum. Retrieved emission intensity shows that polar regions are particularly rich in ozone. Aerosol scattering was observed in the 1-2.5 mum region above the night region above the night disk, suggesting the occurrence of very high noctilucent clouds.
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Angioletta Coradini, Davide Grassi, Fabrizio Capaccioni, Gianrico Filacchione, Federico Tosi, et al.. Martian atmosphere as observed by VIRTIS-M on Rosetta spacecraft. Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets, 2010, 115, pp.04004. ⟨10.1029/2009JE003345⟩. ⟨hal-03785877⟩



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